What’s your favorite drink doing to your teeth?

In 1942, the annual production of soft drinks was approximately 60 12-ounce servings per person.  In 2004, the Center for Science in the Public Interest has reported the total consumption of these drink for every man, woman, and child was approximately 68 gallons per year (Jacobsen, 2005).  And in 2015 Buzzfeed made a video to show avid soda drinkers what their drink of choice was doing to their teeth…

If short on time… from white to brown in 5 days…

My first reaction is fear. But fear isn’t particularly helpful.  Should we be too scared to drink sodas all together?  Do other drinks have this same effect? What is causing this damage? To better evaluate what to drink we need to understand our teeth.

Our teeth are a mineralized structure composed primarily of the hydroxyapatite crystal. This crystalline structure is composed of calcium and phosphate; it’s chemical formula is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.  The presence of more protective factors favor strong intact crystalline structure. A disproportionate number of destructive factors will favor the dissolution of the hydroxyapatite ultimately leading to a cavity.  When the pH in our mouths drop below the critical pH of 5.5,  destruction of tooth structure is favored. When the pH in our mouths drops to below a pH of 4 our teeth start to chemically dissolve even without the presence of bacteria (Dawes, 2003).

Acids are added to beverages and compose a flavor profile giving the beverage a distinctive taste. Acids provide a tartness and tangy taste that helps to balance the sweetness of sugar present in the beverage.

Phosphoric acid is added to cola drinks to impart tartness, reduce growth of bacteria and fungi, and improve shelf-life.

Citric acid, a substance naturally occurring in citrus drinks and added to many others, imparts a tangy flavor and functions as a preservative.

Malic acid occurs naturally in apples, pears, and cherries, and is added to many noncarbonated beverages such as fruit drinks, fortified juices, sports drinks, and iced teas because it enhances the intrinsic flavor. Malic acid also is added to artificially sweeten carbonated beverages to intensify taste and reduce the amount of other added flavorings.

So what is your drink of choice? Do you know the pH of your favorite drink?

While all nutritional labels have the grams of sugar clearly recorded, the pH of our favorite drinks is not as easy to lookup or reference.  Luckily, Dentist and Public Health Researcher Avanjia Reddy and her research team took on the task of measuring the pH of 379  commercially available juices, sodas, flavored waters, teas, and energy drinks.

Table 1pH of waters and sports drinks.
Extremely Erosive
Activ Water Focus Dragonfruit2.82 (0.04)
Activ Water Vigor Triple Berry2.67 (0.01)
Gatorade Frost Riptide Rush2.99 (0.01)
Gatorade Lemon-Lime2.97 (0.01)
Gatorade Orange2.99 (0.00)
Powerade Fruit Punch2.77 (0.01)
Powerade Grape2.77 (0.01)
Powerade Lemon Lime2.75 (0.01)
Powerade Mountain Berry Blast2.82 (0.01)
Powerade Orange2.75 (0.02)
Powerade Sour Melon2.73 (0.00)
Powerade Strawberry Lemonade2.78 (0.01)
Powerade White Cherry2.81 (0.01)
Powerade Zero Grape2.97 (0.01)
Powerade Zero Lemon Lime2.92 (0.00)
Powerade Zero Mixed Berry2.93 (0.01)
Powerade Zero Orange2.93 (0.01)
Activ Water Power Strawberry Kiwi3.38 (0.03)
Clear American (flavored water) Kiwi Strawberry3.70 (0.01)
Clear American (flavored water) Pomegranate Blueberry Acai3.24 (0.01)
Clear American (flavored water) Tropical Fruit3.07 (0.01)
Clear American (flavored water) White Grape3.43 (0.01)
Dasani Grape3.05 (0.01)
Dasani Lemon3.03 (0.01)
Dasani Strawberry3.03 (0.01)
Gatorade Blueberry Pomegranate Low Calorie3.21 (0.01)
Gatorade Fierce Grape3.05 (0.00)
Gatorade Fierce Melon3.05 (0.00)
Gatorade Fruit Punch3.01 (0.01)
Gatorade Rain Berry3.17 (0.01)
Gatorade Rain Lime3.19 (0.01)
Gatorade Rain Strawberry Kiwi3.17 (0.01)
Propel Berry3.01 (0.00)
Propel Grape3.10 (0.01)
Propel Kiwi Strawberry3.17 (0.00)
Propel Lemon3.03 (0.00)
S. Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water4.96 (0.09)
Skinny Water Acai Grape Blueberry3.81 (0.02)
Skinny Water Goji Fruit Punch3.67 (0.01)
Skinny Water Raspberry Pomegranate3.68 (0.01)
Sobe Life Water Acai Fruit Punch3.22 (0.01)
Sobe Life Water Blackberry Grape3.15 (0.01)
Sobe Life Water Cherimoya Punch3.28 (0.00)
Sobe Life Water Fuji Apple Pear3.53 (0.01)
Sobe Life Water Mango Melon3.29 (0.01)
Sobe Life Water Strawberry Dragonfruit3.32 (0.01)
Vidration Vitamin Enhanced Water Defense Pomegranate-Acai-Blueberry2.92 (0.01)
Vidration Vitamin Enhanced Water Energy Tropical Citrus2.91 (0.01)
Vidration Vitamin Enhanced Water Multi-V Lemon Lime3.59 (0.01)
Vidration Vitamin Enhanced Water Recover Fruit Punch3.61 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Connect Black Cherry-Lime2.96 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Dwnld Berry-Cherry3.04 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Energy Tropical Citrus3.15 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Essential Orange-Orange3.23 (0.00)
Vitamin Water Focus Kiwi-Strawberry3.04 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Multi-V Lemonade3.19 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Power C Dragonfruit3.05 (0.00)
Vitamin Water Revive Fruit Punch3.65 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Spark Grape-Blueberry3.19 (0.01)
Vitamin Water XXX Acai-Blueberry-Pomegranate2.98 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Zero Go-Go Mixed Berry3.08 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Zero Mega C Grape-Raspberry3.05 (0.00)
Vitamin Water Zero Recoup Peach-Mandarin3.01 (0.01)
Vitamin Water Zero Rise Orange3.46 (0.00)
Vitamin Water Zero Squeezed Lemonade3.19 (0.00)
Vitamin Water Zero XXX Acai-Blueberry-Pomegranate3.05 (0.01)
Minimally Erosive
Aquafina regular6.11 (0.23)
Birmingham, Alabama, municipal water7.20 (0.05)
Dasani regular5.03 (0.04)
Perrier carbonated mineral water5.25 (0.10)
Table 2 pH of fruit juices and fruit drinks.
Extremely Erosive
Lemon juice2.25 (0.01)
Minute Maid Cranberry Apple Raspberry2.79 (0.01)
Minute Maid Cranberry Grape2.71 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Cranberry2.56 (0.00)
Ocean Spray Cran-Grape2.79 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Cran-Pomegranate2.72 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Strawberry Kiwi Juice Cocktail2.90 (0.01)
V8 Splash Berry Blend2.94 (0.01)
V8 Splash Strawberry Kiwi2.99 (0.01)
V8 Splash Tropical Blend2.93 (0.00)
Amp Energy Juice Mixed Berry3.62 (0.01)
Amp Energy Juice Orange3.60 (0.01)
Barber’s Orange Juice3.81 (0.01)
Dole Pineapple Juice3.40 (0.01)
Juicy Juice Apple3.64 (0.01)
Juicy Juice Berry3.78 (0.01)
Juicy Juice Sparkling Apple3.47 (0.01)
Juicy Juice Sparkling Berry3.50 (0.01)
Juicy Juice Sparkling Orange3.49 (0.01)
Minute Maid Apple Juice3.66 (0.01)
Minute Maid Natural Energy Mango Tropical3.34 (0.02)
Minute Maid Natural Energy Pomegranate Berry3.33 (0.01)
Minute Maid Natural Energy Strawberry Kiwi3.40 (0.01)
Minute Maid Orange Juice3.82 (0.01)
Minute Maid Pineapple Orange3.71 (0.01)
Minute Maid Ruby Red Grapefruit Juice3.07 (0.03)
Naked Blue Machine3.81 (0.01)
Naked Orange Mango3.75 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Orange Juice3.83 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Pineapple Peach Mango Juice Blend3.64 (0.01)
Ocean Spray Ruby Red3.07 (0.01)
Simply Apple3.67 (0.01)
Simply Orange Orange Juice3.78 (0.00)
Tango Energy Juice3.47 (0.00)
Tropicana 100% Juice Apple Juice3.50 (0.02)
Tropicana 100% Juice Orange Juice3.80 (0.01)
Tropicana Apple Orchard Style Juice3.57 (0.00)
Tropicana Grape Juice3.29 (0.01)
V8 Fusion Cranberry Blackberry3.56 (0.01)
V8 Fusion Pomegranate Blueberry3.66 (0.00)
V8 Fusion Strawberry Banana3.66 (0.00)
Very Fine Grapefruit Juice3.22 (0.03)
Welch’s 100% Grape Juice3.38 (0.00)
Welch’s Apple Juice3.57 (0.01)
Welch’s Orange Juice3.73 (0.00)
Minimally Erosive
Campbell’s Tomato Juice4.01 (0.01)
Naked Protein Zone4.69 (0.01)
Tropicana Orange Juice (With Calcium)4.09 (0.01)
V8 Vegetable Juice4.23 (0.01)
V8 Vegetable Juice Low Sodium4.17 (0.01)
V8 Vegetable Juice Spicy Hot4.19 (0.00)
Table 2pH of fruit juices and fruit drinks.
Extremely Erosive
Barber’s Lemonade2.69 (0.00)
Barber’s Orange Drink2.96 (0.00)
Bug Juice Berry Raspberry2.99 (0.01)
Bug Juice Grapey Grape2.83 (0.00)
Country Time Lemonade2.72 (0.01)
Crystal Light Fruit Punch2.96 (0.02)
Crystal Light Raspberry Ice2.77 (0.01)
Hi-C Tropical2.81 (0.03)
Kool-Aid Mix Cherry2.71 (0.00)
Kool-Aid Mix Grape2.83 (0.01)
Kool-Aid Mix Lemon-Lime2.73 (0.01)
Kool-Aid Mix Orange2.77 (0.01)
Kool-Aid Mix Pink Lemonade2.66 (0.01)
Kool-Aid Mix Tropical Punch2.69 (0.00)
Minute Maid Fruit Punch2.86 (0.00)
Minute Maid Lemonade2.57 (0.01)
Minute Maid Orangeade2.85 (0.00)
Minute Maid Pink Lemonade2.59 (0.00)
Simply Lemonade2.61 (0.01)
Snapple Kiwi Strawberry2.77 (0.01)
Snapple Mango Madness2.89 (0.01)
Sobe Black and Blueberry Brew2.69 (0.00)
Sobe Citrus Energy2.63 (0.00)
Sobe Power Fruit Punch2.43 (0.02)
Sobe Strawberry Banana2.62 (0.01)
Sun Fresh Lemonade2.68 (0.01)
Sunny D Smooth2.92 (0.01)
Sunny D Tangy Original2.86 (0.01)
Tropicana Cranberry Cocktail2.70 (0.01)
Tropicana Juice Beverage Cranberry2.59 (0.00)
Tropicana Juice Beverage Grape2.58 (0.00)
Tropicana Lemonade2.70 (0.01)
Tropicana Twister Blue Raspberry Rush2.62 (0.00)
Tropicana Twister Cherry Berry Blast2.63 (0.00)
Tropicana Twister Orange Strawberry Banana Burst2.89 (0.01)
Tropicana Twister Strawberry Kiwi Cyclone2.59 (0.01)
Welch’s Blueberry Kiwi Blast2.57 (0.01)
Welch’s Cranberry2.59 (0.02)
Welch’s Grape Juice Cocktail2.92 (0.01)
Welch’s Ruby Red Grapefruit Juice2.97 (0.01)
Barber’s Fruit Punch2.96 (0.00)
Bug Juice Fruity Punch3.09 (0.00)
Bug Juice Leapin Lemonade3.06 (0.00)
Bug Juice Whistlin Watermelon3.40 (0.01)
CapriSun Surfer Cooler3.08 (0.00)
Crystal Light Green Tea Raspberry Mix3.11 (0.02)
Fuze Banana Colada3.45 (0.03)
Fuze Blueberry Raspberry3.20 (0.01)
Fuze Green Tea Honey and Ginseng3.28 (0.02)
Fuze Orange Mango3.34 (0.02)
Fuze Peach Mango3.53 (0.01)
Fuze Strawberry Banana3.54 (0.01)
Fuze Strawberry Guava3.55 (0.02)
Fuze Strawberry Melon3.18 (0.01)
Fuze Tropical Punch3.17 (0.01)
Jumex Guava3.38 (0.02)
Jumex Mango3.41 (0.01)
Jumex Peach3.33 (0.02)
Jumex Strawberry Banana3.68 (0.01)
Kool-Aid Burst (Tropical)3.07 (0.01)
Little Hug Grape3.09 (0.01)
Little Hug Orange3.00 (0.01)
Mondo (Legendary Berry)3.07 (0.01)
Mondo (Primo Punch)3.10 (0.01)
Sesame Street Elmo’s Punch3.87 (0.01)
Sobe Fuji Apple Cranberry (low calorie)3.16 (0.01)
Sobe Orange Carrot3.34 (0.00)
Sobe Pina Colada3.25 (0.01)
TumE Yummies Fruitabulous Punch3.35 (0.00)
TumE Yummies Orangearific3.34 (0.01)
TumE Yummies Soursational Raspberry3.18 (0.00)
TumE Yummies Very Berry Blue3.33 (0.00)
Vitamin Stix Dragonfruit Acai3.11 (0.01)
Vitamin Stix Passionfruit Citrus3.19 (0.01)
Vitamin Stix Strawberry Kiwi3.06 (0.01)
Welch’s Orange Pineapple3.20 (0.01)
Welch’s Strawberry Kiwi3.03 (0.01)
Table 3 pH of sodas.
Extremely Erosive
7UP Cherry2.98 (0.01)
Boylan’s Black Cherry2.76 (0.02)
Boylan’s Grape2.91 (0.01)
Boylan’s Sugar Cane Cola2.54 (0.01)
Canada Dry Ginger Ale2.82 (0.01)
Coca-Cola Caffeine Free2.34 (0.03)
Coca-Cola Cherry2.38 (0.03)
Coca-Cola Cherry Zero2.93 (0.01)
Coca-Cola Classic2.37 (0.03)
Coca-Cola Lime Diet2.96 (0.03)
Coca-Cola Zero2.96 (0.03)
Crush Grape2.76 (0.01)
Crush Orange2.87 (0.01)
Dr. Pepper2.88 (0.04)
Fanta Grape (2 liter)2.67 (0.02)
Fanta Orange2.82 (0.02)
Fanta Pineapple (2 liter)2.79 (0.02)
Fanta Strawberry2.84 (0.01)
Grapico2.77 (0.03)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Cherry Vanilla Crème2.91 (0.01)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Kiwi Strawberry2.59 (0.01)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Mandarin Lime2.57 (0.01)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Pomegranate2.55 (0.00)
Hawaiian Punch (Fruit Juicy Red)2.87 (0.01)
Jolly Rancher Grape2.60 (0.01)
Jolly Rancher Orange2.88 (0.01)
Jones Blue Bubblegum2.99 (0.01)
Jones Green Apple Soda2.65 (0.01)
Jones Mandarin Orange2.93 (0.00)
Jones M.F. Grape2.89 (0.02)
Jones Orange & Cream Soda2.79 (0.01)
Jones Strawberry Lime2.81 (0.02)
Mr. Pibb Xtra2.80 (0.01)
Natural Brew Draft Root Beer2.90 (0.00)
Pepsi2.39 (0.03)
Pepsi Max2.74 (0.01)
Pepsi Max Ceasefire2.70 (0.01)
Pepsi Wild Cherry2.41 (0.03)
RC Cola2.32 (0.02)
Schweppes Tonic Water2.54 (0.03)
Sunkist Orange2.98 (0.01)
Sunkist Peach2.89 (0.01)
Sunkist Strawberry2.99 (0.01)
Tab2.72 (0.01)
Vault2.77 (0.02)
Vault Red Blitz2.80 (0.01)
Vault x2.89 (0.03)
7UP3.24 (0.02)
7UP Diet3.48 (0.00)
A&W Cream Soda3.86 (0.01)
Ale 8-One3.13 (0.01)
Boylan’s Orange Cream3.59 (0.01)
Boylan’s Orange Soda3.22 (0.00)
Boylan’s Original Birch Beer3.80 (0.00)
Buffalo Rock Ginger Ale3.23 (0.01)
Coca-Cola Caffeine Free Diet3.04 (0.01)
Coca-Cola Diet3.10 (0.05)
Dr Pepper Cherry3.06 (0.02)
Dr Pepper Diet3.20 (0.00)
Dr Pepper Diet Cherry3.32 (0.01)
Fresca (1 liter)3.08 (0.01)
Grapico Diet3.04 (0.01)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Black Cherry Diet3.47 (0.02)
Hansen’s Cane Soda Creamy Root Beer Diet3.73 (0.01)
Izze Sparkling Blackberry3.28 (0.01)
Izze Sparkling Clementine3.27 (0.01)
Izze Sparkling Pomegranate3.01 (0.01)
Jones Cream Soda3.04 (0.01)
Jones Red Apple3.40 (0.02)
Jones Root Beer3.42 (0.02)
Mellow Yellow3.03 (0.00)
Mountain Dew (regular)3.22 (0.07)
Mountain Dew Code Red3.27 (0.01)
Mountain Dew Diet3.18 (0.01)
Mountain Dew Voltage3.05 (0.01)
Mug Root Beer3.88 (0.02)
Pepsi Diet3.02 (0.01)
Sierra Mist3.09 (0.02)
Sierra Mist Diet3.31 (0.01)
Sprite3.24 (0.05)
Sprite Zero3.14 (0.01)
Sunkist Diet3.49 (0.01)
Sunkist Solar Fusion Tropical Mandarin3.02 (0.01)
Welch’s Grape Soda3.11 (0.02)
Minimally Erosive
A&W Root Beer4.27 (0.02)
A&W Root Beer Diet4.57 (0.00)
Barq’s Root Beer4.11 (0.02)
Boylan’s Creme Soda4.17 (0.02)
Boylan’s Diet Black Cherry4.00 (0.01)
Boylan’s Diet Root Beer4.05 (0.02)
Boylan’s Root Beer4.01 (0.01)
Canada Dry Club Soda5.24 (0.03)
IBC Root Beer4.10 (0.02)
Maine Root Root Beer4.36 (0.02)
For manufacturer information, please see the Appendix (available online at the end of this article).
Table 4  pH of energy drinks and teas and coffee.
Extremely Erosive
24:7 Energy Cherry Berry2.61 (0.01)
180 Blue Orange Citrus Blast2.82 (0.00)
180 Blue With Acai2.82 (0.01)
5-Hour Energy Berry2.81 (0.03)
5-Hour Energy Extra Strength2.82 (0.00)
5-Hour Energy Lemon-Lime2.81 (0.00)
Amp Energy Elevate2.79 (0.01)
Amp Energy Overdrive2.78 (0.01)
Amp Energy regular2.81 (0.01)
Amp Energy Sugar Free2.86 (0.01)
Jolt Blue Bolt2.96 (0.00)
Jolt Passion Fruit2.82 (0.01)
Jolt Power Cola2.47 (0.01)
Meltdown Energy Peach Mango2.77 (0.00)
No Fear regular2.97 (0.02)
Orange County Choppers2.78 (0.02)
Purple Stuff Lean2.87 (0.01)
Redline Peach Mango2.74 (0.02)
Redline Princess Exotic Fruit2.85 (0.01)
Redline Triple Berry2.77 (0.01)
Rockstar Energy Drink2.74 (0.01)
Rockstar Punched (Energy + Punch)2.83 (0.01)
Rockstar Recovery2.84 (0.01)
Crunk Citrus3.20 (0.01)
Crunk Energy Drink3.31 (0.01)
Crunk Grape Acai Energy Drink3.30 (0.01)
Crunk Low Carb Sugar Free3.34 (0.00)
Drank3.09 (0.01)
Fuel Energy Shots Lemon Lime3.97 (0.01)
Fuel Energy Shots Orange3.44 (0.01)
Full Throttle Blue Agave3.10 (0.01)
Full Throttle Citrus3.09 (0.01)
Full Throttle Red Berry3.08 (0.01)
Hydrive Blue Raspberry3.45 (0.01)
Hydrive Citrus Burst3.03 (0.01)
Hydrive Lemon Lime3.42 (0.01)
Hydrive Triple Berry3.15 (0.01)
Jolt Ultra Sugar Free3.14 (0.00)
Killer Buzz3.23 (0.01)
Killer Buzz Sugar Free3.36 (0.00)
Monster Assault3.58 (0.01)
Monster Energy3.48 (0.01)
Monster Hitman Energy Shot3.44 (0.01)
Monster Khaos3.47 (0.01)
Monster Low Carb3.60 (0.01)
Monster M-803.29 (0.00)
Monster MIXXD3.35 (0.00)
Nitrous Monster Anti-Gravity3.64 (0.01)
Nitrous Monster Killer B3.31 (0.00)
Nitrous Monster Super Dry3.46 (0.00)
No Fear Sugar Free3.06 (0.01)
NOS Fruit Punch3.32 (0.00)
NOS Grape3.27 (0.01)
NOS High Performance Energy Drink3.31 (0.01)
NOS Power Shot3.03 (0.02)
Redbull regular3.43 (0.01)
Redbull Shot3.25 (0.03)
Redbull Sugar Free3.39 (0.00)
Redbull Sugar Free Shot3.28 (0.02)
Redline Xtreme Grape3.23 (0.01)
Redline Xtreme Triple Berry3.24 (0.01)
Redline Xtreme Watermelon3.41 (0.00)
Rhinos Energy Drink3.51 (0.01)
Rhinos Sugar Free Energy Drink3.32 (0.01)
Rockstar Energy Cola3.14 (0.01)
Rockstar Juiced Energy + Guava3.16 (0.01)
Rockstar Juiced Energy + Juice Mango Orange Passion3.05 (0.01)
Rockstar Sugar Free3.15 (0.03)
Table 4  pH of energy drinks and teas and coffee.
Extremely Erosive
Admiral Iced Tea Raspberry2.94 (0.00)
Arizona Iced Tea2.85 (0.03)
Lipton Green Tea With Citrus2.93 (0.00)
Lipton Green Tea With Citrus Diet2.92 (0.00)
Nestea Iced Tea With Natural Lemon Flavor2.94 (0.01)
Nestea Red Tea Pomegranate and Passion Fruit2.87 (0.01)
Snapple Peach Tea2.94 (0.01)
Snapple Raspberry Tea2.92 (0.00)
Admiral Iced Tea Green Tea3.72 (0.01)
Admiral Iced Tea Mango3.41 (0.00)
Admiral Iced Tea Sweet Tea3.76 (0.01)
Arizona Diet Green Tea + Ginseng3.29 (0.01)
Snapple Diet Raspberry Tea3.39 (0.02)
Snapple Diet Peach Tea3.32 (0.01)
Minimally Erosive
Milo’s Famous Sweet Tea4.66 (0.02)
Milo’s No Calorie Famous Sweet Tea5.18 (0.03)
Red Diamond Tea Fresh Brewed Sweet Tea5.04 (0.02)
Starbucks Medium Roast5.11 (0.05)

For manufacturer information, please see the Appendix available with Reddy’s article.

My advice is to enjoy your refreshment, but know that along with all that tangy flavor comes the need to have habits to balance that acid.

I recommend drinking through a straw to minimize contact with teeth, rinsing with water afterwards, enjoying the drink with a meal as protective saliva flow increases with meals, and brushing and flossing well at home with fluoridated toothpaste to allow your teeth to fortify.


Buzzfeed.What Happens When You Put Teeth In Soda”. Online Video Clip. YouTube.  24 October 2015.  Web 8 May 2016

Dawes , C. What is the critical pH and why does a tooth dissolve in acid? J Can Dent Assoc. 2003;69(11):722-724.

Jacobson, MF. Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks Are Harming American’s Health. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest; 2005.

Reddy, Avanija et al. The pH of beverages in the United States. The Journal of the American Dental Association , 2016;147(4):255-263